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Vincent's Word Studies
1And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God:
Hebrew. Praise ye the Lord. Only in Revelation and in this chapter. Fifteen of the Psalms either begin or end with this word. The Jewish anthem of praise (Psalm 104-109), sung chiefly at the feasts of the Passover and of Tabernacles, derived its title of the Great Hallel from the frequent use of that phrase.
Omit. On the doxologies in Revelation, see on Revelation 1:6.
2For true and righteous are his judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand.
See on John 1:9.
Did corrupt (ἔφθειρεν)
The imperfect tense denoting habit.
Exacted vengeance from (ἐξ).
At her hand (ἐκ)
Lit., "from her hand." See on Revelation 2:7; see on Revelation 18:20.
3And again they said, Alleluia. And her smoke rose up for ever and ever.
Her smoke, etc.
Compare Isaiah 34:10.
4And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.
5And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.
All ye His servants - small and great
Compare Psalm 115:13; Psalm 134:1.
6And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
7Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.
The marriage of the Lamb
For the figure, compare Isaiah 54:1-8; Ezekiel 16:7-14; Hosea 2:19; Matthew 9:15; John 3:29; Ephesians 5:25.
8And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.
Fine linen (βύσσινον)
See on Luke 16:19. The four vestments of the ordinary Jewish priest were made of linen or byssus. Their symbolic meaning depended in part on the whiteness and luster of their substance (καθαρὸν καὶ λαμπρόν pure and bright).
More strictly, as Rev. righteous acts.
9And he saith unto me, Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb. And he saith unto me, These are the true sayings of God.
10And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
See thou do it not (ὅρα μή)
See not (to do it).
The testimony of Jesus (ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Ἱησοῦ)
Some explain as the testimony which proceeds from Jesus. Jesus, by imparting this testimony to believers imparts to them the spirit of prophecy. Others, the witness which is born to Jesus. The way of bearing this witness, the substance and essence of this testimony is the Spirit of prophecy.
11And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.
A white horse
Compare Revelation 6:2.
12His eyes were as a flame of fire, and on his head were many crowns; and he had a name written, that no man knew, but he himself.
See on 1 Peter 5:4; see on James 1:12.
13And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.
The readings differ; some giving ῥεραντισμένον sprinkled, others περιρεραμμένον sprinkled round. Rev., sprinkled. Compare Isaiah 63:2, Isaiah 63:3.
The Word of God (ὁ Λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ)
This name for our Lord is found in the New Testament only in the writings of John. It is one of the links which connects Revelation with John's other writings. Compare John 1:1-14; 1 John 1:1. Some object to this on the ground that, in the Gospel of John, the term is used absolutely, the Word, whereas here it is qualified, the Word of God, which the Evangelist nowhere employs, and in 1 John 1:1, the Word of life. But, as Alford observes: "It may be left to any fair-judging reader to decide whether it be not a far greater argument for identity that the remarkable designation ὁ Λόγος the Word is used, than for diversity, that, on the solemn occasion described in the Apocalypse, the hitherto unheard adjunct of God is added." The idea of God which is represented here, underlies the absolute term the Word in John 1:1. It is further urged that in the Gospel ὁ Λόγος is applied to the prehistoric Christ, while in this passage it is applied to the historic Christ. But the name of the historic Christ is that referred to in Revelation 19:12, not in Revelation 19:13. It is the name "which no one knoweth but He Himself," expressing the character of His whole redeeming work. The name in Revelation 19:13 is that which belongs originally and essentially to Him.
14And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean.
Note the imperfect tense denoting progression, and thus describing the advancing movement of the host.
15And out of his mouth goeth a sharp sword, that with it he should smite the nations: and he shall rule them with a rod of iron: and he treadeth the winepress of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God.
See on Revelation 1:16.
See on Revelation 11:6.
Shall rule (ποιμανεῖ)
See on Revelation 2:27.
See on Revelation 14:19.
Of the fierceness and wrath (τοῦ θυμοῦ καὶ τῆς ὀργῆς)
Omit and, and render, as Rev., the fierceness of the wrath. See on John 3:36.
Of Almighty God (τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ παντοκράτορος)
Lit., of God the all-ruler. See on Revelation 1:8.
16And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.
On His thigh
Some explain, on the garment where it covers the thigh to which the sword is bound. Compare Psalm 45:3. Others, partly on the vesture, partly on the thigh itself, where, in an equestrian figure, the robe drops from the thigh. According to the former explanation καὶ and is to be taken as explanatory or definitive of the words on His vesture. Others again suppose a sword on the hilt of which the name is inscribed. Expositors refer to the custom of engraving the artist's name on the thigh of a statue. Thus Cicero says: "A most beautiful statue of Apollo, on the thigh of which the name of Myron had been graven in tiny letters of silver" ("Against Verres," iv., 43). Herodotus describes a figure of Sesostris, bearing across the breast from shoulder to shoulder the inscription written in the sacred character of Egypt: "With my own shoulders I conquered this land" (ii., 106). Rawlinson says that Assyrian figures are found with arrow-headed inscriptions engraved across them, and over the drapery as well as the body.
17And I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the fowls that fly in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God;
An angel (ἕνα ἄγγελον)
Lit., "one angel."
See on Revelation 18:2. Rev., birds.
Midst of heaven
See on Revelation 8:13.
Gather yourselves together (συνάγεσθε)
The best texts read συνάχθητε be gathered together, as Rev. Compare Ezekiel 39:17 sqq.
The supper of the great God (τὸ δεῖπνον τοῦ μεγάλου Θεοῦ)
Read τὸ μέγα τοῦ for τοῦ μεγάλου, and render the great supper of God.
18That ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit on them, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great.
See on Mark 6:21; see on Luke 7:2.
19And I saw the beast, and the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against him that sat on the horse, and against his army.
20And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.
Was taken (ἐπιάσθη)
See on Acts 3:7.
See on Revelation 13:16.
See on Luke 5:1.
See on Revelation 14:10.
21And the remnant were slain with the sword of him that sat upon the horse, which sword proceeded out of his mouth: and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.
Were filled (ἐχορτάσθησαν)
See on Matthew 5:6.